engine components, mechanical loksewa, function of engine parts

This question was asked in  Mechanical Loksewa exam held in Butwal on date 2080/05/22 for Bigyapan Number. 13902/79-80 Nirman Upkaran Sambhar, 5th Level Mechanical Loksewa Exam

The function of main components employed in engine for its working are listed below and they are explained in simple way for easily understanding and for memorizing for Loksewa exam.

A mechanic checks the oil on a car being repaired

Functions of Engine Components:

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Crankshaft: The crankshaft transforms the pistons’ linear motion into rotating motion, which drives the wheels of the vehicle or propels machinery.

Camshaft: The timing of the intake and exhaust processes is ensured by the camshaft, which regulates valve opening and closing.

Cylinder Block: The engine’s structural backbone, the cylinder block, securely houses the cylinders, pistons, and crankshaft, providing robust support and stability.
Cylinders: The structures in which combustion takes place, allowing for gas expansion and energy production.
Piston: The air-fuel mixture is compressed, ignited, and turned into mechanical energy by the movement of pistons inside the cylinders. The passage of air, fuel, and exhaust gases into and out of the cylinders is regulated by valves.
Cylinder Head: This component seals the top of the cylinders and houses the combustion chamber.
Intake Manifold: Air is directed into the cylinders via the intake manifold for combustion.
Exhaust Manifold: Gathers and directs cylinder exhaust gases.

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Spark plugs: Produce sparks to ignite the fuel and air mixture in gasoline engines.
Fuel Injector: Deliver fuel into the combustion chamber using a fuel injector (gasoline engines) or a fuel injector pump (diesel engines).
Oil Pump: Moves engine oil around to cool and lubricate moving parts.
Radiator: By dispersing extra heat, the cooling system keeps the engine at a constant temperature.
Timing Belt or Chain: For perfect valve timing, a timing belt or chain synchronizes the crankshaft and camshaft and help in opening and closing of intake and exhaust valve at correct timing.
Turbocharger: Grabs hot fresh exhasut air and send to intake port to Increases air volume in intake and for providing complete combustion for generating more engine power.
Catalytic Converter: To reduce pollutants and noise, the exhaust system routes and filters harmful exhaust gases such as NOx, CO and hydrocarbons.
Engine Control Unit (ECU): Tracks and modifies engine settings for optimum effectiveness and performance.
Sensors: Provide real-time data to the ECU for precise control.
Gaskets and Seals: Using gaskets and seals, you can seal components together so that no air or oil can enter.
Throttle Body (Gasoline Engines): Gasoline engines’ throttle bodies control air intake to manage power.
EGR: Recirculates exhaust gases to minimize combustion temperatures and emissions through an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve.
Balance Shafts: These dampen vibrations from the engine.
IAVC: Controls idle speed is the Idle Air Control Valve (IACV).
Valve Springs: Offer force for precisely controlling valves.
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Flywheels or flexplates: These components help the engine run smoothly.
Thermostat Sensor: Engine temperature is controlled by the thermostat.
Oil Filters: Engine oil pollutants are removed by the oil filter and lastly,
Belt Tensioner: Maintains optimum tension on timing belts using a timing belt tensioner, if necessary.
While studying these answer, it is also better to check youtube channel for actual representation of parts in video format. This wil help you to understand in more clear and concise way.
Tips to be Noted: During writing in exam, write in the same ways as written in this article. You will get 4.5 marks at least out of 5 marks.
Also please check our others articles those were asked in various mechanical loksewa exams of Nepal.
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